Thursday, July 13, 2006

Texas Wine: Lay Your Opinion On Me!


First, the trivia: Texas is the fifth largest producer of wine grapes after California, New York, Washington and Oregon. She has a vinicultural history that predates California's by roughly a century, and still has one winery that has been in consistent production (yeah, during Prohibition, too) for the entire time. Current vineyard acreage is around 3700, there are over a hundred wineries in operation, and over a million gallons of vino is produced every year, contributing almost two million dollars to the agricultural economy of the state.

By all accounts, we should be big. Just like New York, Washington or Oregon, we should be a travel destination for wine lovers the nation over, producing top-quality, well recognized bottles that get praise galore from reviewers across the globe.

If you're snickering right now, you just hush.

So what's the problem? Or rather, the problems? Why is it that Texas wine still holds a reputation for low-end amateur tourist wine among enthusiasts? Why, despite countless "awards" and "medals", does Texas command no presence in the national market? Why is it one vintage of so-and-so's Cabernet is so great one year, and absolute swill the next? And most of all among this set of Qs: why is it that when a particularly good Texas wine is released and receives recognition, does the price tag on the bottle make me want to spew my smoothie in laughter?

For the next several posts, I'm going out into the field to talk to Texas growers, winemakers and investors to try to find out what needs to happen to get Texas on the wine map of the world. I want to ask difficult questions, and I want good, solid answers. I want to know exactly where the Texas market is right now, why, and what the people involved believe it's gonna take to improve the quality, marketability and reputation of Texas wine.

Next week, I'm interviewing Mike Guilete, the winemaker for Woodrose Winery. They make 'La Cigale', that wine I was so nuts about when I tried it during my trip to Lubbock.

What I'd LOVE from you, gentle reader, is to lay some of your opinions about Texas wine on me. Especially if you're from a different state. What have you heard about it? Have you ever tried any, and what did you think? I want to know if what I think is happening, is happening. So leave me a comment and tell me what you think of when you think 'Texas Wine'...honestly. Don't worry, I won't be hurt.



Anonymous maggie said...

I guess when you're talking about wine from Texas... My gut reaction is that their biggest problem is trying to force themselves to produce crappy versions of wines/grapes that already sell. Instead of biting the bullet and growing grapes and making wine that works best for TEXAS.

It's like Missouri trying to make good Merlot, when they should really just concentrate on Norton. I've had some kick ass Viognier from Texas.

Also, I think I've had some dirty Texas wines. As in, not clean/filtered/sanitary.

Hmm...that's about 5 cents.

3:07 PM  
Anonymous Jennifer Cox said...

Hi, Tiffany - I've been drinking "Texas Wines" since approx 1973, so I think I have a pretty good perspective on the long term. I believe that Texas lack of presence in the national market has to do with one major factor - there have not been enough wine makers making consistently excellent wine for the last thirty years. There have been some short term outstanding stars -
Pheasant Ridge was one when Bobby Cox made the wine - Llano Estacado when Don Brady made wine -
Kim McPherson at Caprock when Caprock was a real businesss, and he does now under his McPherson label- Becker usually - Craig Parker at Flat Creek. To gain national presence the quality AND supply must be consistent.
My experience in vineyards and wine study says that you can talk about varieties suitable to Texas no more than you can talk about varieties suitable to France. Texas is bigger than France. If one had planted Grenache and Cab in the Marne Valley, we might say that France cannot make good wine. Texas is a huge place with a limitless number of terroirs - a word which by the way I like. The French definition covers it. Texas is a young wine industry - one that is just beginning to understand its' terroirs. Growers and winemakers who have done the most research re: varietal suitability to teroirs elsewhere in the world will have the best results, given that they have competent, not amateur winemakers. Texas needs more professional winemakers rather than part time amateurs.
We are currently drinking a Majus Grillo Catarratto from Sicily. It is dry and fruity with a pleasantly bitter finish - a good bottle for a hot afternoon. We have had a lot of Sicilian wines recently which are very well made! Come to see us again soon!
Jennifer Cox

4:52 PM  
Anonymous Jeff Ivy said...

I am a winemaker who just moved to Texas. I make wine at a winery in New Braunfels. Being here for less than three months, here are some observations. 1) There are not enough grapes of any quality. 2) No one knows which grapes grow best in what part of the state. 3) European grape varieties do not do very well south of Abilene. 4) There is a lot of decent wine being ruined by sloppy, lazy winemaking.
The potential here is great, which is why I moved back. But the wine industry is little different than ten years ago; very little consensus as to the direction of the industry, and no sense of regional identity.

3:02 PM  
Blogger taj said...

Maggie--good point. I've talked to Bobby Cox about the varietal issue at length.

Jennifer---Hi! Thanks for your insight. I agree that Texas must attract better winemakers who are willing to get in it for the long haul. Which leads me to...

Jeff--Thanks for stopping by, and I think you're right on. Are you up for talking more? It would be a great help to talk to someone who has chosen to make a real go at it. Email me:

3:39 PM  
Anonymous Bobby Cox said...


Thanks for posting. Let me comment on your observations.

1. Absolutely correct, we need to plant vineyards where they will grow wonderful wine and we are, it just takes time. Don't lose heart.

2. We are learning fast by trial and ERROR (quite a bit of error as ya'll have noticed)

3. I will not say a thing here but I might nod my head approvingly.

4. Wow! you noticed. There is a bunch of really poor craft going on out there. This has nothing to do with the quality of the fruit. There are wineries out there who just do not tend to business and it gives EVERYONE a black eye. Texas is hiring an extension enologist in a month or so this guy (or gal) has their work cut out for them.

The current situation is not fair for the current crop of wineries. Normally the wonderful prices we are currently getting would spur vast amounts of new planting. Varieties you want in places where they would do well, BUT the severity of the last wine crash in the early 90's has given everyone the yipps. The vineyards planted in the 70' & 80's had a FIVE (count them five) percent, survival rate. This has filled the hearts of High Plains growers with fear but fear is a great motivator and the current crop of growers are very attentive and observant. They will do a great job.

6:54 AM  
Anonymous Jeff Ivy said...

Hey Bobby,

Glad to hear you from you. It does my heart well that people like you and Kim McPherson and Jim Johnson are preaching the gospel of Texas wines. I think people need to understand that Chardonnay and Cabernet are just nor going to cut it except in a very few places. There are so many hotter climate varieties becoming available. I know that Viognier is somewhat fashionable now, what what about Marsanne or Roussanne? Or for that matter, how about Grenache Blanc or PicPoul. As far as reds, how about Negro Amaro or Montepulciano? To me, regional identity is not about making the same wines as California. Even if it means making quality wines from hybrids like Lenoir or Blanc du Bois, so be it, but embrace it rather than apologize for it.

11:18 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Part of the Texas problem may be that some wine makers want to make what they like and not what the consuming public likes.

Jim Johnson's first batch of El Quapo was outstanding, maybe the best bottle of Texas red wine I have ever had.

But Jim decided he didn't really want to make it that way again (at least that's what I heard) and a dramatic start was lost forever.

Go figure.

6:33 AM  
Blogger taj said...

See, I'm thinking it's the opposite, most of the time: Texas winemakers concentrate on the varieties that are name-recognizable, and try to grow them in places where they don't do well enough to produce excellent wine, instead of looking for grapes that are hardier, more disease resistant and happier being grown in Texas. Chardonnay and Cabernet have done poorly in the Hill Country, as far as I can tell.

Jim may well have said he wanted to change El Guapo, but I can't imagine he intended that next batch to come out the way it did. But before I say anymore, I want to talk to Jim and give him the benefit of the doubt.

7:42 AM  
Anonymous Don said...

Texas wineries, as a group, sell 95% of their production in Texas. This one fact leads a reasonable person to make two conclusions: 1) Texas consumers find Texas wine products principally acceptable at their current price points, and 2)there is little business need for distribution outside of Texas. Texas wineries, collectively, have a 6.1% share of the .75 - 1.5 litre volume in Texas. This is quite remarkable for the modest production level that Texas wineries have. The largest five wineries in Texas are producing 73% (in 2005) of the wine produced within Texas. My opinion, and the opinion of consumer journals that I read, is that the quality is generally good, and there are a few wines of exceptional quality.
And naturally, there are substandard wines, just as there are substandard wines from all wine growing regions.

Quality is an interesting issue. First, a wine without flaws, meets a basic quality standard. Quality beyond that is a matter of typicity for the wine varietal or style and personal taste. I think that "typicity" is an issue for the Texas wine industry to contemplate. Typical characteristics of a Texas High Plains Syrah may be quite different from syrah from other winemaking regions outside of and within Texas, and to rate the THP syrah against a benchmark wine from the Coonwarra would be inappropriate. When the Texas wine industry begins to discover, define, and discuss varietal typicity for the winegrowing regions within the state, the industry will ba able to establish an appropriate benchmark to judge the quality beyond a "lack of faults." If one were to blind taste an exceptional Cotes Rotie in the company of a fine Australian Shiraz, one might find the fruit forward character of the Shiraz exceptional, diminishing one's appreciation of the nuance of the Cotes Rotie.

Personal taste is the second issue for the Texas wine industry to consider addressing. Among wine consuming states, Texas ranks fourth in volume, but ranks 33rd in per capita consumption. These facts are a significant "tell" about the quality perception of Texas wines. I suspect that a lot of the quality chatter, inside and outside of the Texas wine industry, is promulgated by folks who simply have not had significant experience with diverse styles and type. When one's wine experience has been primarily "critter label" wine, one hasn't the palate to appreciate a mature Chateau Latour. For Texas wine consumers to learn how to appreciate the diversity of wine style and the myriad of undiscovered Texas terroirs, industry members must improve their own palates.

If these things happen, the quality chatter will diminish and Texas wine consumers will begin to fully appreciate the Texas wines that they are already purchasing with great enthusiasm.

Finally, there must be profit for all stakeholders in the industry. No industry can grow without a profit motivation.



11:59 AM  
Blogger taj said...

"I suspect that a lot of the quality chatter, inside and outside of the Texas wine industry, is promulgated by folks who simply have not had significant experience with diverse styles and type."

I hope by "chatter" you didn't mean us, Don. 'Cause that would be exceptionally arrogant. And arrogance betrays poor breeding.

You're really wrong, by the way. I chat about the quality of Texas wines all the time, and so do many of my friends in the biz, and we've all tasted thousands of wines. I know my way around Coonwarra and Cote Rotie, thanks. That doesn't preclude an interest in what happens here at home.

1:45 PM  
Anonymous Don said...


Certainly did not mean that there are not many fine palates within the industry like yours and those of Jennifer and Bobby. I used the word "chatter," not as a descriptor for a substantive discussion like your blog attracts, but to convey my assessment of a great deal of misconceived perceptions of quality.



5:31 PM  
Blogger taj said...

Please pardon my grumpy jump to conclusion. My air conditioner's not working so good.
You're right to say that a Texas syrah cannot be compared to Coonwarra or Cote Rotie, and probably never will. But I think the quality issue goes beyond personal taste. When you're talking about per capita production and consumption, you have to factor in the fact that the mass of that production comes from St. Genevieve, which pumps out the vast majority of that production, and it ain't quality they're after.

I'll delve more into this soon. Thanks for your comments, Don.

8:09 PM  
Anonymous Don said...


St. Gen is a fine case study for us. Here's a winery (last count, I think 57th largest in the nation) that is selling most of its product in Texas. It's in the value price range and, this year, has been able to successfully increase its price (at the retail level) by about 25% without diminishing volume sales.

Texas consumers continue to buy St. Gen and its other labels, Lor Val and Perigrine. I would be hard put to find any California winery at St. Gen's production level that did not require national distribution. Most California wineries of 5,000 cases or more producing wine at premium pricing must have national distribution. But, Texas wineries from large to small are managing to sell 95% of their product in Texas. This disconnect between Texas wine consumer behavior and perception of quality makes me ask, "Why?"

Please forgive my enthusiasm for this discussion, but I'm up late protecting the vineyard from maurauding critters, and I am confounded by this cognitive disconnect.



8:57 PM  
Blogger taj said...

Don, you're making some great points about the big business picture of Texas wine, many that I hadn't really considered. But from a consumer's point of view, and a wine enthusiast's, there is a very different picture.

People purchase Texas wine for a number of reasons, and St. Genevieve is purchased because it is super duper cheap. For---what is it, six bucks?--you can buy an entire magnum of very soft, semi-sweet wine for parties and what-not. For a long time, St. Gen was the house wine of choice for many restaurants because it was a great profit margin and had the Texas name on it to boot. From a business perspective, this is dandy. But my angle is about encouraging a strong, recognized tier of high quality, distinctive (and while we're at it, appropriately priced) Texas wine.

The more I talk to winemakers here, the more my list of challenges to that goal is solidified. I'll be posting that soon.

Thanks for joining in the conversation!

2:31 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

It would be interesting to know what percentage of Texas wine is sold in the tasting room vs other outlets - Tim Dodd at TX Wine Marketing Institute will know.

The wines from St. Genevieve I have tasted in the last few years were competitive with Australian and Californina product at the same price point. (And since most were from CA and Australia - they should be!)

Their quality/value perception is good in the market they aim for - they have big visibility in grocery stores. Don, I believe that there is not a disconnect here - there is in fact a "connect" being made with many entry level buyers. Just last week, there was a large case stack display of St Genevieve in the Fiesta market on 8th Ave in Fort Worth, a store that caters to Mexican American patrons - many products and produce for the cuisine. I saw people reading it and buying it. I believe that St. Gen is bringing an untapped segment of TX population into the wine drinking fold. Additionally, I know knowledgeable wine drinkers who buy St. Genevieve for big parties. Texas still has far more tea and beer drinkers than it has those who can discriminate Australian from Rhone Syrah and who buy wine at $20+ per bottle. We need reliable entry level wines at lower prices to capture more of our population - I would so much like to see Texans swearing off Gallo to buy Texan! Now that could affect the Texas wine consumption numbers.

5:02 PM  
Anonymous Don said...


I agree with your assessment of St. Gen's wines. I drink them (I used to drink a lot of wine in various categories and price points before I planted a vineyard) and find the quality to be good at their price point. I am a St. Gen fan.

The disconnect I see is not between consumers' perception of the quality of Texas wine and their purchase of the wine, but between consumers' purchase of Texas wine, while reading and hearing that Texas wines are mediocre.

That all Texas wines are sold in Texas tells me that the Texas consumer, who rate wine with pocket books, think Texas wineries are doing a pretty good job.

On the other end of the spectrum, ultra premium wines are beginning to be made in Texas. The 2003 Flat Creek Estates Super Texan received a double gold in the 2005 San Francisco International Wine Competition (the largest in the US) and recent release of 2004 Becker Vineyards Cabernet Sauvignon Reserve received a four star rating in the internationally distributed Decanter magazine. Ultra rpemium wines shold receive ultra premium pricing.

Things are coming along nicely. Not fast enough for most of us, but still...

The 2004 US On and Off-premise wine sales (dollar value) were 53% Off and 47% On.



7:59 PM  
Anonymous Don said...


I know you to be the relentless advocate of High Plains fruit; however, the Becker Reserve was a blend of High Plains fruit from the Newsom Vineyard and Mason County fruit from the Tallent vineyard.



8:03 PM  
Anonymous Bobby Cox said...

Relentless here, in this discussion of Texas Terroir I would loved to have seen what the two Cabernet Sauvignons blended inti the Becker reserve could have done on their own. The Tallent Cabernet Sauvignon I tasted at your house was as good as any Texas Cabernet Sauvignon I have tasted in a long time. (I sure wish TAJ could taste it) The wine Becker bottled is VERY good but I would have loved to see how two very fine Terroirs would have evolved separately over the years. They were grown 300 miles from each other and cannot be too much alike. Both could be good Terroirs but only time will tell for sure.

9:05 PM  
Anonymous Christian Cox said...

As a wine enthusiast, and as Bobby's kid, I too would love to have tasted the Becker Reserve Cab unblended. Whether each wine independently would have received a 4 star in Decanter is a now esoteric question. Even if each wine was "better" on its own, it probably wouldn't make business sense for Becker to try to market both wines. I assume that both vineyards are credited on the label, as he has done in previous vintages. I'm also willing to assume that the blended wine was the "best" wine and that the palates represented in this discussion might even agree on that. The wine may be outstanding, but it does nothing to inform the enthusiast about the typicity issue that you brought up Don.

The appellation systems of the worlds wine growing regions and our own AVA system are theoretically guides to typicity. I think that our AVAs are more geared to identifying macroclimates and are ultimately less valuable than their European counterparts. But I also think that very few places in the US have the experience to begin identifying terroirs, via appellation, with much more specificity. Vineyard designate wines are probably the best terroir proxy in the states, because they provide the consumer with a way to learn about the site and grower, but I don't think that any region outside of California has the sheer number of plantings to start drawing generalizations about sub-regional typicity.

Take the hypothetical Texas High Plains Syrah. It doesn't exist, there isn't enough Syrah planted, there hasn't been enough wine made to even begin to say what THP Syrah tastes like. The same is true for almost all varieties in almost every Texas AVA.

For a counter-example, we know that there have been some very good THP Cabs, reproduced through multiple vintages in the 80s and being made today with Newsome and Welch and Reddy and Hunter and other fruit, by many different winemakers. Those wines have a lot in common from a terroir perspective. They're grown on substantially different sites, but they all share the THP macroclimate, have HARDWORKING, knowledgeable vineyard owners/managers who are committed to growing premium wine, and the fruit is ending up in the hands of competent winemakers.

The problem is, although it may end up being an asset, is that our discussion of quality growers of Cab in Texas would be finished in only a few more paragraphs. When you interject incompetent winemaking, the discussion of premium finished wines is even shorter.

(Don, this is no longer directed at you, specifically. BTW, haven't seen you in CMFW in a while.)

How can this be an asset? Winemakers that are interested can know with a few conversations, who is growing good fruit where. There is not a sea of fruit or people to sift through. If you want good cab in Texas, you know where to get it. If there's not enough, call one of the above vineyard owners and offer them a long term contract, I bet they'll plant more.

The same people in the industry are an asset to the wineries that want to make a go of new varieties. You know WHO is growing good fruit. They know what they're willing to attempt. They'll plant Marsanne, or Roussanne, or Nero D'Avola if they're offered a fruit contract unless they have good reason to believe the variety won't succeed.

The key to producing good wine anywhere that has the potential to do so is simply to plant more grapes. Some sites will succeed, some will fail. Some people will succeed, some will fail. None will succeed if none are planted. Over time, the industry learns who grows what best where. You can't build a true appellation system until you have thousands of planted acres and hundreds of winemakers.

Think about the anniversary of the Paris tasting, which is regarded as the beginning of the modern CA industry. There should probably be more talk about WHERE those wines were grown, but instead we talk about WHO made those wines. Right now, the Texas industry can know the WHO. It's especially important in the Hill Country, where Nature conspires against even the good growers. Wineries need to commit to the people who grow good grapes. Growers need to prefer good winemakers to safeguard their efforts.

Making world class wine in Texas takes what it takes everywhere else in the world.
1) A possible terroir (not even an ideal one)
2) Hardworking, knowledgeable vineyard management
3) Competent winemaking. (btw, there are two opposites to competent winemaking, incompetent and over-competent, I don't like to support either.)

A slip in any area can ruin a wine, and in a young industry, ruin a reputation.

Back to my original point, I REALLY glad that the Becker Cab is so good. I'll buy a bottle. But I think that everyone in this discussion would love to know how the constituent wines were different. I would love for us to be able to get together and drink both bottles and discuss the two wines. We would know more about Texas cab if we could have that discussion. We could tell people more about Texas wine and why it's good if we could have that tasting.

Furthermore, we, as members of this industry, could "discover, define, and discuss varietal typicity" for Cabernet Sauvignon between two different winegrowing regions within the state. What we need is more competent winemakers making Cabs from both places so we can start the typicity discussion. Maybe Richard has library bottlings of both wines that one of us might one day get to taste.

I'm all for having great wines made from Texas fruit hit the shelves in Texas and beyond. The industry isn't even united behind that principle.

I'm more for expressive, site-specific, at least AVA level, Texas wines. I think the goal should be for those wines to be the best wines, but we'll never know if they're not made.

7:22 PM  
Anonymous jeff ivy said...

I have an interesting experiment going on right now. We are getting Lenoir from five different vineyards; one from Industry, one from Brenham, one from Boerne, one from Dripping Springs, and of course our estate grapes. All lots will be fermented in macro bins, and all additions, yeast strain etc are the same. All lots will be kept seperate. Although it is not vinifera, I think it will be interesting to see if there are any differences, given the range of soil types.

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